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Prevention of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced genotoxicity and cardiotoxicity: Effect of plant derived small molecule indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on oxidative stress and inflammation

Doxorubicin (DOX) also known as adriamycin is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used in the treatment of several types of human ma- lignancies including haematological malignancies, solid tumors, soft- tissue sarcomas and breast carcinoma [1,2]. The therapeutic potential of DOX is achieved through the processes of intercalating into DNA, inhibiting topoisomerase II, preventing DNA and RNA synthesis [3]. However, the clinical use of DOX is limited due to the development of myocardial toxicity in patients as well as cytotoxic effects to normal cells, leading to unwanted side effects which may substantially impact patient health and quality of life [4,5]. In addition, nausea, vomiting, neutropenia, alopecia and arrhythmias are the acute adverse effects of DOX-therapy [6]. In connection with that, DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity is approximately 11% during and within 2–3 days of its administration [7,8]. Metabolism of DOX in our body significantly in- creased the production of free radicals and the occurrence of lipid peroxidation [9,10] as well as depletion of antioxidants and sulfhydryl groups [11,12]. According to the present knowledge, the mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity appears to be multi- factorial, involving increased lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, DNA/ RNA damage, endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis and dis- turbance of calcium homeostasis [13]. Additionally, the metabolism of DOX through NADPH-cytochrome P-450 enzyme leads to the formation of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which in turn cause injury to cellular membranes. Moreover, DOX can stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, increasing the production of nitric oxide (NO), which is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure [14]. Due to great importance of DOX in cancer che- motherapy, it is essential to reduce its toxicity to normal cells, a goal that can be achieved by concurrent administration of free radical scavenging agents such as antioxidants [15]. Thus, attenuating oxida- tive stress, inflammation and apoptosis is a potential therapeutic strategy against DOX-induced toxicity [16]. We therefore postulated that activation of endogenous antioxidant pathways might be a po- tential complement for DOX-induced toxicity. Thus, inhibition of apoptosis, attenuating oxidative stress as well as pro-inflammatory mediators, viz., nuclear factor-kβ (NFkβ), iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression is an impending ther- apeutic approach against DOX-induced toxicity.

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring glucosinolate break- down product found in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli and Brussels sprouts [17,18]. It is one of the phytochemicals that was shown to poses potent anti-estrogenic [19] or apoptosis-inducing property in cancer cells [20]. Earlier studies reported that I3C has the ability to amplify some antioxidant enzymes activity such as hemox- ygenase-1 and glutathione transferase [21]. Moreover, I3C was shown to possess chemopreventive activity against benzo[a]pyrene-induced mouse forestomach carcinogenicity [22] as well as anti-tumor activities via interference with a variety of signal transduction pathways involved in cell survival [23]. Additionally, I3C attenuated lipid peroxidation by normalizing the activities of antioxidant enzymes in host organs. It was also reported that I3C has the ability to stabilized cell membrane and reduced leakage of myocyte injury marker enzymes [24]. Moreover, I3C modulated cell death mediators through down-regulating sphin- gosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity and inflammatory mediators along with mitigated histological perturbations [14]. These facts motivated us to evaluate the protective role of I3C against DOX induced toxicities through inhibition of apoptosis, modulation of Nrf2/ARE and in- flammatory response pathway in Swiss albino mice. NMN

Materials and methods

Experimental animals

In this study, Adult (5–6 weeks old) Swiss albino female mice (25 ± 2 g b.w.), bred in the animal colony of Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute (Kolkata, India) were used. They were maintained at control temperature (23 ± 2 °C) and humidity (55 ± 10%) under al- ternating light and dark conditions (12 h/12 h). Animals were fed with standard food pellet diet (EPIC rat and mice pellet from Kalyani Feed Milling Plant, Kalyani, West Bengal, India) and drinking water was provided ad libitum. All procedures for animal experimentation used were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (CPCSEA Reg. No.-1774/GO/RBi/S/14/CPCSEA, India)].


Indole-3-Carbinol was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals Private Limited, Bangalore, India (Purity >96%). Doxorubicin was obtained from Cipla LTD, Verna, Goa, India. in situ cell death detection kit, AP was purchased from Roche Diagnostics India Private Limited, Bangalore, India. Nrf2, Keap1, HO1, NQO1, NFkβ(p50), iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, anti-mouse IgG-HRP, anti-goat IgG-HRP, anti-rabbit IgG-HRP and Luminol were bought from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Texas, USA). GST-π was purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, USA). GAPDH and Histone H3 were purchased from Novus Biologicals (Colorado, USA). All other chemicals not specified were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals Private Limited, Bangalore, India and Merck (India) Limited, Mumbai, India.

Preparation and administration of I3C

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) was administered orally as a suspension using 5.5% propylene glycol in water. It was prepared each day just before treatment.

Median lethal dose (LD50) determination of I3C

The oral LD50 dose of the compound I3C was carried out as per the instruction by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 by Up-and-Down-Procedure (UDP) [25].

 Experimental design for the toxicity study of the compound I3C

  • The animals were divided in to five groups containing six animals (n = 6) in each group.
    Vehicle-control group (VC): Each animal was orally treated with 5.5% propylene glycol in water for 28 days.
  • I3C (10 mg/kg b.w.)-treated group (I3C-10): I3C was given orally at the dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. for 28 days.
  • I3C (20 mg/kg b.w.)-treated group (I3C-20): I3C was given orally at the dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for 28 days.
  • I3C (30 mg/kg b.w.)-treated group (I3C-30): I3C was given orally at the dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. for 28 days.
  • I3C (40 mg/kg b.w.)-treated group (I3C-40): I3C was given orally at the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. for 28 days.

The mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose administration, on day 29.

Experimental groups for the evaluation of chemoprotective potential of I3C

In the present study, the animals were divided into five groups containing six animals (n = 6) in each group.

  • Vehicle control group (VC): Each animal was given 5.5% propy- lene glycol in water by oral gavages for 10 days.
  • Only I3C treated group (I3C): Each animal was orally treated with I3C at the dose of 20mg/kg b.w. throughout the experimental period (25 days).
  • DOX treated group (DOX): Each animal was intraperitoneally treated with only DOX in saline water (alternated days at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w.) for up to day 9 (5 doses, resulting in a cumulative dose of 25 mg/kg b.w.).
  • DOX + I3C Concomitant-treated group (DOX + I3C Con): I3C was treated orally at the dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. from day 1 to day 10 and DOX was administered as DOX-treated group.
  • DOX + I3C Pre-treated group (DOX + I3C Pre): I3C was ad- ministered orally for 15 days prior to DOX treatment at the dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. and DOX was administrated as DOX treated group.
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Getting Started with the Paleo Diet

paleo-getting-startedThe Paleo diet is a time-tested and proven way to get back to basics and eat like our ancestors did. Why would you want to do that? Think about it… our ancestors were much healthier than we are. There were no health epidemics like diabetes, heart disease and obesity. They ate much differently than we do today, as they didn’t have a plethora of processed foods pushed at them each and everyday. Continue reading

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Does Garcinia Cambogia help Burn Body Fat

The problem of people being overweight and battling with health issues is on the rise. It does not all in the world struggling as well, its any trouble that is booming. The major that people struggle with problem is that they are consuming far more of junk and processed foods, and really little if any natural healthy food products. This overtime outcomes in people gaining weight, which may be result to things like obesity not really controlled initially.

By researching and comparing the Best Weight Loss Programs the actual world market like Garcinia Cambogia, you will find out the one escalating safe and right for you. Take benefit of the different trial offers that each program provides and start losing weight right now.

Constantly happening diet after diet isn’t good with regard to you both physically and emotionally. It’s been found that there is often a considerable personal price to pay for for frequent dieting.

Oatmeal. Got fiber? Oatmeal will fill you up, stick to the ribs and provide you body a significantly needed dose of these foods include. Just stay away from the flavored instant oatmeal that usually loaded with sugar. Select the tub of Quaker Oats (it a lot cheaper than packaged instant oatmeal) and attempt adding a fresh, chopped apple, some cinnamon and bit of Splenda to barefoot running.

Let’s start thinking about the content inside shed pounds. The program is composed of a five-day cycle will be repeated 5 times for a complete of 25 days. Each of the five days is consisting of an involving specific techniques and workouts designed enhance your metabolism and fat burning hormones. If your metabolic rate high your body will naturally burn fat on itself this particular is one secret from the system. Positive will soon burn more quickly when you increase your metabolic rates are high.

What then when you eat is essential for your perfectly being. It’s important that we address the since eating much fast food, candy, associated with meat or sugar can – that can – affect your nicely. Similar to sleeping, regularity is valuable when you are considering eating. Regular meals will, besides keeping you sharp much longer, actually a person loose importance. No more sudden dips in blood sugar, allowing you to eat that candy pub.

The answer was surprisingly simple — confuse your body! If your body adapts to new eating styles, just cycle through different diets until you hit your target body. The body only becomes accustomed to diets in approximately four to eight week increments.

Posted in Garcinia Cambogia Reviews, Uncategorized.

7 Day Weight Loss With Yacon Powder

Yacon, the Latest Natural Weight Loss Phenomenon

Yacon, used in pills or syrup, are the latest competition for Garcinia Cambogia in amazing natural weight loss without even trying. Garcinia Cambogia, which has been attributed to the weight loss for both Rachel Ray and Paula Dean, and also for hundreds of thousands others, allows the dieter to eat just about anything they want and take the weight off. This is also an amazing property of Yacon that the dieter does not have to change their diet to lose weight. This interests everyone who even are holding on to the last 5 lazy pounds, which are often the most difficult to lose.

Another property is that it takes off belly fat, too! So, amazing benefits occur while still eating what you want. Another miraculous natural food!

The Yacon is a vegetable that is native to South America or more specifically, the Andes Mountains. The ancient Incas were known to eat the Yacon vegetable for its nutritional value and for the high fiber content it has. The main characteristics of this vegetable is that it is very low in calories, high in fiber, it falls low on the glycemic index, so your system doesn’t spike after eating, and it has a nice, sweet flavor.

Because it’s so low on the glycemic index, it’s not easily broken down into sugar in the body, which means the spike that comes with high sugar or insulin foods does not occur. There is a key ingredient in Yacons called Fructooligosaccharide or FOS for short. This is the ingredient that carries all of the benefits that were mentioned, but don’t confuse FOS with the fructose found in fruit. The FOS does give Yacons the sweetness of the vegetable.

Yacon can be taken in several forms for weight loss, including powder, pills, syrup, dried chips and even the root of the plant. It is typically taken 15 minutes before a meal because another fantastic benefit is that it lowers the hunger hormone called ghrelin, so satisfaction comes sooner and you eat less.

There has been extensive research performed recently on Yacons and how they affect weight loss, including Dr. Oz. In the majority of cases, the results were positive and showed weight loss for each one. The combination of stabilizing the blood sugar and hunger while accelerating the metabolism and allowing the healthy bacteria to be created in the gut creates a winning formula for taking off fat.

Posted in Diets and Weight Loss, Uncategorized.

Must See! Yacon Syrup Newest Weight Loss Breakthrough

yacon-syrup-breakthrough-signI’d love to believe in every new diet supplement that hits the weight loss market. But let’s be honest here – you can’t really do that since so many of them never live up to the hype that surrounds them. Lately, the diet pill I most highly recommend has been garcinia cambogia. But today I want to share something with you that might rank right up there with it and it’s call Yacon syrup. Actually, you can get find it in syrup form, pills, powder and more. Never heard of it? Don’t worry. I hadn’t either until a few weeks ago. Then the other day I noticed that Dr. Oz had taken notice of it too.

That’s good and bad. Most of what he recommends I can agree with (not always). But once something gets buzzed up on his daytime TV show then it often fuels a marketing frenzy. That means marketers will start pushing it as hard as they can with no real research of their own, just trying to make a quick buck. So be forewarned.

Can Yacon Syrup Actually Help with Weight Loss?

questions-weight-loss-roadIn my research, the answer to that question is an astounding yes. Sometimes when the newest, hottest diet product is revealed, there’s almost no real research behind the claims. Thankfully, that’s not the case here. There has been quite a bit of qualified research already done on it. There was a 120-day study that led many participants to lose an impressive amount of weight – about 30 pounds, as well as losing roughly 2 inhces around the waist. I don’t know about you, but I find that very promising, especially since they weren’t doing anything different other than they started using yacon syrup.

Dr. Oz did his own reseach on this – for over a year. Then that wasn’t even enough. He also brought in a panel of experts and other doctors. They were all in agreement that yacon is definitely promising.

“ The results showed “Daily intake of yacon syrup produced a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference and body mass index.”

Natural Organic Supplement with Many Health Benefits

Yacon isn’t something that can only be used as a diet aid, either. There are actually several benefits that you can expect from using it. Other than being natural and organic, which translates to safe, you can also lower your bad cholesterol levels (LDL levels) just by using these pills. It can also aid in regulating your digestive system, so it’s also recommended anyone who suffers from chronic constipation.

“Now this is why I’m passionate about it, it’s not just about losing weight, Yes you’ll get that I know that’s why people will try this, but if it can get your blood sugar down that’s a Gold Mine for us when it comes to your health.” -Dr. Oz

What is Yacon – Is It Really All Natural?

natural-organic-pillsOf course it is. If you buy a quality product. Like I mentioned at the beginning of this post, I worry that marketers will start throwing crap products together that are cheaply made with no concern about quality. That means filling it up with artificial ingredients, not making sure it’s effective, not testing it etc. But in a good yacon product then yes, it is absolutely all natural. It comes from the yacon plant found naturally in South America. The Andes Mountains to be exact.

Like apples? Like syrup? You’ll probably even ENJOY the taste of this supplement. It is naturally sweet and has a taste that will almost remind you of apples. In fact, many people like to use it as a natural, EXTREMELY LOW CALORIE sweetener – great in teas. The sryup form of the supplement is derived from the roots of this plant.

How Does It Work?

Yacon syrup and pills have a very important ingredient that’s responsible for the making the magic happen. It’s called Fructooligosaccharide… Good golly, I know! The first time I seen that word I was like “A whaaat?? How do you even say that?” But who cares, really. We’ll refer to it as FOS. Just like we refer to the hydroxycitric acid in garcinia cambogia as HCA. So just remember to look for FOS. FOS is the ingredient responsible for the sweet flavor of yacon, too. But the amazing thing is – it’s sweet, but not treated like sugar in your body.

The Science Behind Yacon’s Magic

You know about probiotics by now, I’m sure. But have you heard of prebiotics? They sound very alike and a lot of people get confused. So here’s a breakdown as easy as I can put it:

prebiotics-imageProbiotic: Suspected to have many health benefits, but not proven.
Prebiotic: Provides an array of health benefits, many of which have been medically proven

Probiotic: Live bacteria found in many products such as yogurt and other dairy products. It has to be protected and kept alive in order to provide any benefit, but can easily lose its effectiveness due to stomach acids, bodily heat and other factors.
Prebiotic: A special form of fiber that remains unchanged when it enters your body.

Probiotic: Being a bacteria, it competes with the many other bacteria in your body for attention.
Prebiotic: Nourishes, grows and benefits the bacteria we all have in our bodies.

Probiotics have been getting all the attention lately, but personally, I would take prebiotics over probiotics anyday. And yacon is a prebiotic. It specifically helps nourish and grow flora. What is flora?

Flora: Microscopic organisms that in turn nourishes the “skinny bacteria” in your body. Those that determine how easily you absorb nutrients, as well as fight off potentially dangerous organisms in your body. They take the FOS and create short chain fatty acids.

The Fatty Acids: Increases the sensitivity that tissue has to insulin and helps prevent cholesterol synthesis in the liver.

Following me so far? Now, to see why it’s important… It all comes down to this, which is right from Dr. Oz himself:

“Researchers show that first way it works is to speed up your metabolism, by promoting the skinny bacteria. Yacon syrup very interestingly lowers the hunger hormone ‘ghrelin’ which brings you down towards fullness, and keeps you down by also controlling insulin.  -Dr. Oz”

What’s the Best Way to Use Yacon?

That’s kind of a personal choice, really. You can find it in the form of syrup, pills, dried chips or the root itself. Any of them will provide health benefits, assuming you bought a quality, natural product. They’re all going to contain the FOS that’s vital to it working like it’s supposed to. But if you ask me, pills are the way to go. Some people like to use the syrup as a sweetener, which I do from time to time. But I just find that it’s much easier to pop the pill with my morning juice (made from fresh fruit, of course).

Where Can You Buy It?

shop-smart-onlineAs I’ve said (Yes, I’m going to continue to pound this into your head) – you’ll probably start seeing yacon everywhere. That means hundreds, if not thousands of places to choose from. So for now, I’ll just stick to some points of what to look for and what to watch out for when buying yacon pills or syrup, including the tips that Dr. Oz gives:

  • Look for and understand any money back guarantee or refund policy
  • Check for artificial filler ingredients
  • Always read the label before buying. If you can’t, don’t buy it
  • Don’t buy products claiming to be an alternative to prescription medication
  • Stay away from products with misspellings on the packaging
  • Stay away from products with foreign language on the packaging
  • Stay away from products promising the moon i.e. losing 25 pounds in 5 days
  • Research and stay away from products potentially identified by the FDA as tainted

Is It Right for You?

As I’ve said, there’s more to yacon pills than merely weight loss. Because of the many health benefits that it provides, there are actually a lot of people who could benefit from using. If you answer yes to any of the following questions then I recommend you look into yacon further:

  • Do you need more fiber?
  • Do you want or need to lose weight?
  • Do you suffer from IBS or chronic constipation?
  • Do you need to lower your blood sugar?
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Questionable Purity of Puritan’s Pride

Good or bad? Puritan Raspberry KetonesThere are many good things to be said about the supplemental vitamin company Puritan’s Pride. The vast amount of products they offer is impressive, and their prices are reasonable. It doesn’t take long to come away very impressed when looking through their website. They seem to always have a fabulous sale going on, with either completely free shipping or a low flat rate for any amount of merchandise. Lures like that are hard to ignore.

Combos and Choice Overload: Good or Bad?

Unlike a few other companies we’ve reviewed, they do offer you the convenience of being able to check out the label for yourself. Remember to look closely, though.

The product Raspberry Ketones and White Kidney Bean Complex has only 100 mg of raspberry ketones, while it packs 500 mg of White Kidney Bean. If you were looking for a Raspberry Ketone product, that wouldn’t get you very far. There are several different combinations they offer – Raspberry Ketones mixed with everything from Green Coffee extract to African Mango. Thankfully they also offer just the Raspberry Ketones, but no higher than a dosage of 500 mg. Not very impressive.

Maybe Not All Natural – No Sources?

This company seems to have thought of everything. You can have excellent prices, free shipping and your raspberry ketones mixed with just about any other supplement you can imagine! What’s not to like… right? Except one thing… where do they get their raspberry ketones from? we could find NO information about the source of their raspberry ketones. Not a hint of whether it’s made from real raspberries or grown in a petri dish somewhere. The most you can find out is that they sell “highly concentrated forms of raspberry ketones”. That’s little comfort to customers who are looking for a purely natural product to rely on.

So while you may get what seems like a good deal by ordering from Puritan’s Pride, the unanswered questions may tip the scales in the long run.


We’re always suspicious of these types of stores. It seems like they offer some really good deals, but you never really know what you’re getting since they don’t tell you anything about where or how they produce their products – or information about their manufacturer if they aren’t the ones who really create them. You’re simply bombarded with half a dozen variations of every supplement, including raspberry ketones. You’re better off buying from a supplier that’s forthcoming and one that specializes in a few select supplements instead of trying to dab their toes into everything.

Raspberry Ketones Supplier: Tips to Pick the Right One

Searching for raspberry ketones can be time consuming if you aren’t sure what to look for. There are dozens of different brands and even more suppliers that carry those brands. Take a little bit of time to make sure you make the right choice. From our research, there’s a clear winner: these raspberry ketones drops are the ones that we currently recommend. You won’t find a better deal from a better supplier.

Dr Oz confirms drops work better:

  • You get more bang for your buck
  • Drops are absorbed by your body quicker and easier
  • This particular brand isn’t jam packed of useless ingredients
  • It’s 100% all natural, proven to be safe and simply work
  • You get a real money back guarantee with no hoops to jump through



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How 5htp helps you lose weight

When you start thinking about getting a wider bathroom mirror, you know you’re in trouble—especially if the present one goes wall-to-wall. And when the Post Office says it’s going to give you your own ZIP code, that does it. You stamp your foot, call a contractor to repair the hole you just made in the floor, and vow that you’re going to do something about all that flab. You want to be slim, sure, but how are you going to accomplish that? Well, duh—by losing weight, of course.

Americans have been losing a lot of weight lately. Unfortunately, most of it has been from their wallets. Compared to the weight-loss industry, there is probably no enterprise, with the possible exception of government, that promises so much to so many, yet delivers so little to so few—while raking in piles of money for consistently achieving near-total failure. You’ve probably heard it all before: diets don’t work, any weight loss won’t last, some diets are bogus, others are harmful, the “guarantees” are worthless, the promoters are crooks, etc. (Now you’ve heard it all again—sorry.)

The sad thing is, much of that is true. And despite our collective obsession with weight loss, we have become the earth’s fattest, least-fit people—including our kids—and it’s getting worse all the time. That’s great news for the weight-loss hucksters, whose skill at separating people from their money must make politicians green with envy, because these people fork it over willingly! (P. T. Barnum was right.)

Supplements Can Help with Weight Loss

supplementsSince the laws of physics have not been repealed lately, it bears repeating that there are only two ways to lose weight: (1) reduce energy intake (consume fewer calories), and (2) increase energy expenditure (burn more calories). Simple, no? Simple, not—it’s very hard for most people to do. It’s for the strong of heart and mind. It takes willpower and self-discipline, without which your chances of losing weight are about the same as those of Congress being seized by a sudden attack of ethical behavior.

Fortunately, though, the laws of chemistry haven’t been repealed either, and there are ways in which your willpower and self-disciplined efforts to take in fewer calories and burn off more calories can be augmented by the reactions of certain nutritional supplements. Let’s look at two of them: 5-HTP, which helps reduce energy intake, and EGCG (from green tea), which helps increase energy expenditure.

5-HTP Suppresses Appetite

In the human body, the amino acid 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) is the immediate precursor to one of the brain’s most important neurotransmitters, serotonin. Serotonin helps to regulate mood, sleep, and appetite, among other things. In cases of serotonin deficiency (which can arise in different ways), there is a tendency to become depressed, to sleep poorly, and to overeat. It is believed, e.g., that genetically induced serotonin deficiency is a common factor in obesity, and there is no doubt that this compound has a major influence on eating behavior.1

It almost goes without saying that when you have a deficiency of some substance, you should try to correct it by supplementing with that very substance—or, in some cases, with a precursor substance, which is sometimes more desirable. To correct serotonin deficiency, it’s preferable to take not serotonin itself, but 5-HTP.* Your body converts much of it to serotonin, which is found not only in the brain but also in relatively high concentrations in blood platelets and in the intestinal wall. (Serotonin is a powerful stimulant of smooth muscle and may play a role in promoting intestinal peristalsis.) By boosting brain serotonin levels, 5-HTP helps create a feeling of satiety (fullness), thus suppressing appetite. Hence, energy intake is reduced (weight-loss key #1).

*Although it occurs naturally in the human body, 5-HTP is obtained for use as a supplement from the seeds of an African plant, Griffonia simplicifolia. It is the identical molecule.

5-HTP Reduces Caloric Intake

Most of the clinical studies on the use of 5-HTP for weight loss were done by a group of Italian researchers at the University of Rome in the early 1990s. In one such study on 19 obese women (a 5-week, double-blind, crossover trial in which each woman served as her own control), 79% of the women reported a decrease in appetite while taking 5-HTP.2 This was borne out by measurements of their actual caloric intake: it was found that supplementation with 5-HTP reduced the women’s daily intake by 508 calories—a 22% reduction compared with placebo. Over the 5-week period, the women lost an average of 3.1 lb with 5-HTP, vs. 0.9 lb with placebo. The amount of 5-HTP used daily (taken in three divided servings) was 3.6 mg per pound of body weight; this corresponds to a total of 450 mg per day for a 125-lb woman, or 900 mg per day for a 250-lb woman.

5-HTP Produces Weight Loss, Diet or Not

In a second study, the Italian researchers put 14 obese women on a 1200-calorie/day diet for 6 weeks.3 Some were given 300 mg of 5-HTP 30 minutes before meals (a total of 900 mg per day), while the others were given placebo. Over the 6-week period, the women taking 5-HTP lost 6.8 lb, on average, compared with 1.5 lb for the women on placebo.

In the same study, the researchers had previously tested the same women during a 6-week period in which they were given the same daily 5-HTP (or placebo) regimen, but without any dietary restrictions. Over that 6-week period, the average weight loss was less (not surprisingly), but still appreciable: 3.5 lb with 5-HTP and 1.1 lb with placebo. Thus, with or without dietary restrictions, the women in this study lost substantial amounts of weight (10.3 lb total) while taking 5-HTP—4 times as much as with placebo (2.6 lb total).

5-Fold Greater Weight Loss with 5-HTP

In yet a third study, of essentially the same design as the one just discussed, but with 20 obese women, the Italian researchers found that 300 mg of 5-HTP taken 30 minutes before meals resulted in a 6-week weight loss of 7.3 lb with 5-HTP vs. 1.8 lb with placebo when the women were on the restrictive 1200-calorie/day diet.4 Without the diet, the women had 6-week weight losses of 3.7 lb and 0.6 lb, respectively. Thus, the total weight losses over the 12-week period of this study were 11 lb with 5-HTP and 2.4 lb with placebo—a nearly 5-fold difference. The 11-lb weight loss represented 5% of the women’s starting weight of 220 lb.

“. . . oral administration of the
green tea extract stimulated
thermogenesis and fat oxidation
and thus has the potential to
influence body weight and
body composition . . . .”

In this third study, 5-HTP also produced dramatic results in terms of the women’s feelings of early satiety, i.e., feeling full earlier than usual during a meal. When the women were not on the restrictive diet, 100% of those who were taking 5-HTP reported early satiety. Even when they were on the diet, however (but taking 5-HTP), this feeling persisted: the figure then was a remarkable 90%. Clearly, the feeling of early satiety led the women to eat less than usual, resulting in the weight losses observed.

Slow Buildup Is Best with 5-HTP

In the studies discussed above, about two-thirds of the women reported mild nausea while taking these very large doses (up to 900 mg/day) of 5-HTP; in the second and third studies, nausea occurred during the first 6 weeks but not during the second 6 weeks. In real life, the easy way to avoid nausea caused by 5-HTP is to start with a small amount and build it up gradually over a period of 2 weeks; this is sufficient time to allow the body to adjust, and thereafter the supplement is well tolerated.5

-written by Will Block at

Posted in diet, Uncategorized.

5htp for weight loss – according to Doctors

A new weight loss supplement is gaining tremendous interest. In fact, Dr Oz just featured it on his show. It’s called 5HTP (5 Hydroxytryptophan) and it might just be what you need to finally lose weight. In fact, it’s considered one of the very best natural appetite suppressants.

5htp-amazed-woman5HTP Benefits

Besides weight loss, 5htp has long been used and studied for a variety of reasons. It has proved to be useful in alleviating a broad range of health problems including:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorders and panic attacks
  • Alcoholism
  • PMS
  • Obesity
  • Eating disorders such as bulimia
  • Oses­sive-compulsive disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Uncontrollable violent impulses.

All of these conditions have been successfully treated with 5–HTP. There are indications that these conditions may, in certain instances, be caused by underly­ing brain dysfunction that might be improved by 5HTP.

A significant body of evidence supporting these claims has been acquired over the past 35 years in human clinical trials and animal experiments. 5HTP itself does not directly perform any specific function in the body. 5HTP’s only known role is to serve as the precursor, or raw material that some cells use to create the neurotransmitter serotonin.

How Does 5HTP Help You Lose Weight?

Like we said, your body actually produces this chemical. It’s then converted into serotonin. The serotonin is then used to curb your appetite and improve your mood… and you lose weight. To get the most benefit from it, doctors are recommending an actual 5HTP supplement vs a serotonin one.

Why? The serotonin can’t access your brain directly from the bloodstream like 5HTP can and that’s needed in order to increase the levels of serotonin in your brain.

When you have higher levels of serotonin in your brain, your hunger dissipates and you actually feel fuller more often. There’s a study that showed women reducing the amount of carbs they ate naturally. They didn’t even realize it, as they weren’t purposely trying to do so.

5htp-warningsHow Safe is 5HTP?

Doctors agree that it’s perfectly safe for most people to use for limited time periods (12 weeks being the maximum). It occurs naturally in your body, so it isn’t like you’re introducing foreign substances. There is an exception, though.

  • They say that if you have gastrointestinal problems, you should talk to your doctor first. That’s because some people have reported gastrointestinal side effects like abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea.
  • You should also avoid it if you’re on antidepressants like MAOI or if you’re suffering from bipolor disorder/severe depression. 5HTP could in some cases increase suicidal thoughts and depression.
  • You shouldn’t use it if you’re pregnant, think you might be pregnant or if you’re breastfeeding.

Before buying 5HTP, make sure you aren’t already taking something that could be negatively increasing your serotonin levels. If you’re on any kind of medication, ask your doctor about it.

History of 5htp for weight loss

5htp-historyAs far back as 1975, researchers demonstrated that administering 5HTP to rats that were bred to overeat and be obese resulted in significant reduction in food intake (6). It turns out that these rats have decreased activity of the enzyme that converts tryptophan to 5HTP and subsequently to serotonin. In other words, these rats are fat as a result of a genetically determined low level of activity of the enzyme that starts the manufacture of serotonin from tryptophan. As a result, these rats never get the message to stop eating until they have consumed far greater amounts of food than normal rats.

There is much circumstantial evidence that many humans are genetically predisposed to obesity. This predisposition may involve the same mechanism as that observed in rats genetically predisposed to obesity. In other words, many people may be predisposed to being overweight because they have a decreased conversion of tryptophan to 5HTP and, as a result, decreased serotonin levels. By providing preformed 5HTP, this genetic defect is bypassed and more serotonin is manufactured. 5HTP literally turns off hunger (7).

5ht-doctor-research-15HTP Research

This isn’t something that we’ve just recently discovered, although it may just now start receiving a lot of attention. It’s actually been studied for more than 30 years. There have been clinical trials that prove just how effective it is at reducing the amount of calories that you eat.

Lost Over 10 Pounds in 12 Weeks

One study took overweight women and gave some of them 200mg of 5HTP to take just before eating. The other women were given a placebo instead. The participants that were taking the real 5HTP managed to lose over ten pounds in merely 12 weeks. Those who were taking a placebo? They lost just over two pounds. After further study, weight loss experts say that this is a supplement that usually works best if you’re they type who constantly craves food (carbs in particular).

The early animal studies that used 5HTP as a weight loss aid have been followed by a series of three human clinical studies of overweight women, conducted at the University of Rome (8-10). The first study showed that 5HTP was able to reduce caloric intake and promote weight loss despite the fact that the women made no conscious effort to lose weight (8). The average amount of weight loss during the five-week period of 5HTP supplementation was a little more than 3 pounds.

full-tummy-bellyCompletely Satisfied Despite Low Calorie Diet

The second study sought to determine whether 5HTP helped overweight individuals adhere to dietary recommendations (9). The twelve-week study was divided into two six-week periods. For the first six weeks, there were no dietary recommendations; for the second six weeks the women were placed on a 1,200-calorie diet. As shown in Table 1, the women who took the placebo lost 2.28 pounds, while the women who took the 5HTP lost 10.34 pounds. As in the previous study, 5HTP appeared to promote weight loss by promoting satiety-the feeling of satisfaction-leading to fewer calories being consumed at meals. Every woman who took the 5HTP reported early satiety.

Impressive Weight Loss Even With No Dieting

In the third study involving 5HTP, for the first six weeks there were no dietary restrictions, and for the second six weeks the women were placed on a 1,200-calorie-per-day diet (10). The results from this study were even more impressive than the previous studies for several reasons. The group that received the 5HTP had lost an average of 4.39 pounds at six weeks and an average of 11.63 pounds at 12 weeks (They lost even without dieting in the first half of the study!). In comparison, the placebo group had lost an average of only 0.62 pounds at six weeks and 1.87 pounds at twelve weeks. The lack of weight loss during the second six-week period in the placebo group obviously reflects the fact that the women had difficulty adhering to the diet.



Feel Fuller – Faster!

Early satiety was reported by 100 percent of the subjects during the first six-week period. During the second six-week period, even with severe caloric restriction, ninety percent of the women taking 5HTP reported early satiety. Many of the women who received the 5HTP (300 mg three times per day) reported mild nausea during the first six weeks of therapy. However, the symptom was never severe enough for any of the women to drop out of the study. No other side effects were reported.

No known health risks from taking 5htp

In September 1997, the popular weight loss drug Redux and its chemical cousin fenfluramine, part of the “fen-phen” combination, were taken off the market based on a study showing that these drugs may have caused permanent damage to heart valves in as many as one-third of the people who took them. There is no evidence that 5HTP produces these effects. Unlike Redux, 5HTP does not raise blood serotonin levels to a significant degree nor does it block reuptake of serotonin. The point here is that 5HTP does not disrupt the normal process of serotonin release, reabsorbtion, and elimination from the body. 5HTP is not a synthetic drug; it is an amino acid produced naturally by your body’s metabolism.

Warning About Low Quality 5HTP

Don’t simply buy the cheapest one you find. This goes for any supplement, but especially 5HTP.

A few years back there was a problem where some low-quality 5HTP supplements were contaminated with EMS (eosinophilia myalgia syndrome). It originated in impurities in the L-tryptophan. So you need to make sure you’re getting a quality product.

Also, there are many fly by night websites that sell products that don’t even have any of the active ingredients they claim. This is most common of websites that pay for traffic (the sites listed at the right side of Google and Bing search results). Nearly all of the scam websites are found there, as they can easily disappear tomorrow and their victims cannot find them again.

Where to Find 5HTP Supplements

This is not a new product, and you can find this supplement in many health food stores or online. Just remember that a quality product is worth a little extra. You should expect to pay up to about $20-$40 a bottle, depending on the quantity per capsule and capsules per bottle. Be very suspicious of any price too low – read the label very carefully and you will probably see it’s deceptive in some way – lots of fillers, or low mg per capsule, etc.

As you can hopefully tell, we take our research seriously. You should do the same – your health depends on it. If you simply don’t have the time, then we got you covered. Below you’ll find the ones that, after all our research, are the ones that we recommend.

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Posted in diet, Uncategorized.

How 5htp Can Help You Achieve Your Weight Loss Goals

5htp is fast becoming the most sought after weight management supplement on the market. 30 years of research and a recent mention on the Doctor Oz website have generated considerable buzz about this new weight loss wonder. But what exactly is 5htp, what does it do, and are there any side effects?

Following is a brief introduction, some facts and a summary of 5htp’s health benefits. 5-Hydroxytryptophan is an amino acid naturally occurring in small amounts in the body. It is synthesized from L-tryptophan, present in such whole food sources as pumpkins, potatoes, turkey, milk and cheese, and assorted greens. Incorporating these foods into one’s diet can result in higher 5-Hydroxytryptophan levels, but supplements can also provide an easy and equally viable option for those embarking on weight loss regimens.

Typically derived from a shrub indigenous to West and Central Africa, 5-Hydroxytryptophan is available in many over the counter forms, and it can be found in the health food or pharmacy sections of large supermarkets. Mucuna pruriens, a tropical legume, is another source. An offshoot of serotonin production, 5-Hydroxytryptophan aids in mood regulation. Double blind placebo studies have demonstrated its effectiveness at combating depression and promoting restful sleeping patterns. Boosted serotonin levels have also been linked with decreased appetite.

5-Hydroxytryptophan significantly increases levels of both amylin and leptin, the body’s natural appetite suppressants and fullness hormones. As referenced on the Doctor Oz website, 5-Hydroxytryptophan easily accesses the blood brain barrier, directly impacting brain function and stimulating the release of certain hormones, leaving one feeling fuller for longer periods of time and less subject to cravings.

Individuals on a diet of any kind will find 5-Hydroxytryptophan enables them to go longer periods on less calories, thus expediting weight loss at a steady, manageable rate. Researchers and experts especially recommend it for those who crave carbs nonstop.

A recent study found that of two groups of women whose food consumption was observed over five weeks, the group given 200 mg of 5-Hydroxytryptophan prior to meals consumed upwards of 1,000 calories less per day and experienced less hunger. The women involved in the study did not restrict their diets, nor exercise profusely, yet still experienced loss of weight.

Incorporating 5-Hydroxytryptophan into one’s diet should be done gradually, beginning with a small dose to assess tolerance. It is best taken approximately one half hour prior to meals, and periods of dosage should be cycled: 12 weeks on, one month off, etc. Two to three weeks may transpire before benefits begin to manifest.

Indirect evidence suggests that side effects of 5-Hydroxytryptophan may include damage to heart valves and/or cardiac fibrosis, or headaches and tremors, nausea, and diarrhea. It should be noted these side effects are primarily the result of contrary interactions between 5-Hydroxytryptophan and SSR/MAO inhibitors (antidepressants). For those who are not currently taking SSR/MAO inhibitors, 5-Hydroxytryptophan may provide relief of moderate mood disorders, anxiety, insomnia, and eating disorders.

Posted in Diets and Weight Loss, Uncategorized.

Green coffee, Raspberry Ketone, and African Mango and the Superfruit diet

Currently, there are more than a few supplements that can help people lose weight. But choosing the right supplement can be very difficult, just because there are so many different ones available. However, there are a few supplements that are known as the superfruit diet supplement. The following are the best all natural supplements on the market, ones that are talked about by some of the most noted talk show hosts in the world, people like Oprah, and Dr. Oz.
Acai Berry

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Posted in Uncategorized.